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NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGG
Ajaz A. Ganie, F.M. Bhat, I.A.Mir and Nazam khan
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana) -132001, India
Table egg is the most nutritious, unadulterated, yet relatively cheaper, natural food, having the highest digestibility coefficient. The egg protein is the best protein available in nature for human consumption, with well balanced amino acid profile, having the highest biological value, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, net protein value, chemical score and % digestibility as compare to other food stuffs (Table no.-1).
Table no.-1 Comparative Nutritive Values Of Egg & Other Food Stuffs

FOOD STUFFS

BIOLOGICAL VALUE

PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO

NET PROTEIN UTILIZATION

CHEMICAL SCORE

% DIGESTIBI--LITY

Egg

96

4.5

93

100

97

Milk

85

3.0

81

65

94

Meat

80

2.8

76

70

82

Chicken

82

2.9

78

71

85

Fish

85

3.0

72

70

85

Liver

77

2.9

65

66

83

Soybean

64

2.0

54

57

73

(Narahari, 2005)

Besides high protein quality (containing all 9 essential amino acids), egg is rich in all essential vitamins and minerals; except vitamin C. In addition to the above nutrients, egg contains several special components; which are having nutritional, extra-nutritional, fractional, therapeutic and health promoting properties. The level of some these special components in eggs are shown in table no.-2
Table no.-2 Protein and Lipid fractions and special components in 100g Egg components (Egg protein and Egg yolk)

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY

ALBUMEN PROTEINS:

YOLK PIGMENTS:

Ovalbumen

3.78g

Carotenes

1 -2mg

Ovomucoid

0.77g

Cyptoxanthin

0.2- 8.6mg

G2 and G3 globulins

0.64g

Lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin & other xanthophyls

3.614.5mg

Lysozyme (G1 globulin)

0.260g

YOLK LIPIDS:

Ovomucin

0.203g

Triglycerides

7.30g

Ovoflavoprotein

60mg

Total saturated F.A.

3.55g

Ovoglycoprotein

50mg

Total MUFA

4.85g

Ovomacroglobulin

40mg

Total PUFA

2.14g

Ovoinhibitor

20mg

Fat soluble vitamins

4-20mg

Avidin

4mg

Glycolipids/ cerebrosides(Ovokerasin & Ovophrenasin)

38mg

Cystatin

3mg

SPECIAL COMPONENTS:

Conalbumen(Ovotransferrin)

0.91g

Taurine

5-8mg

YOLK PROTEINS:

Sulforaphane

1-4mg

Ovovitellin

4.20g

Lumiflavin

0.25mg

Lipovitellin

0.5g

Lumichrome

0.20mg

Livetin

0.4g

Sialic acid

10mg

Low Density Lipoprotein

0.4g

Betain

50-90mg

Ovolivetin

0.30g

Antibody “IgY”

++

PHOSPHOLIPIDS:

Lipoprotein “YLP-p17.5” Lycopene Quercetin”

+++

Phosphotidylcholine(Lecithin)

2.47g

YOLK STEROLS:

Phosphotidyl ethanolamine

0.68g

Cholesterol

0.40g

Phosphotidyl serine

102mg

Brassiscasterol

4.8mg

Lysophosphotidylcholine

226mg

Campesterol

4.8mg

Sphingomylin

38mg

Stigmasterol

0.8mg

Plasmalogen

34mg

B-sitosterol

0.8mg

Lysophosphotidyl ethanolamine

78mg

Inositol phospholipids

20mg

(American Egg Board, 1989)
The nutritional value and chemical composition of chicken egg in comparison to other food stuffs are also shown in Table no.-3.
Table no.-3 Relative Nutritive Values Of Egg and Other Food Stuffs

NUTRIENT

Contents in 100g

EGG LIQUIDS

COW’S MILK

SOYBEAN

POTATO

CHICKEN MEAT

FISH

Protein (g)

13.0

3.3

35.3

1.6

26.0

20.3

Lipid (g)

11.4

4.1

18.0

0.10

5.0

4.0

Sugar(g)

0.9

4.4

20.9

34.6

0.1

0.8

Inorganic matter (g)

1.0

0.8

4.6

0.6

1.3

1.5

Energy (K Cal)

160

67

432

87

110

110

Phospholipid(g)

3.78

0.45

2.46

----------

1.76

0.41

Cholesterol (g)

400

30

---------

-----------

60

60

AMINOACIDS(g)

Alanine

0.64

---------

-----------

---------

---------

--------

Arginine

0.80

0.12

2.5

0.05

1.87

1.24

Cystine

0.30

0.30

0.54

0.01

0.33

0.19

Glycine

0.40

0.10

1.54

0.03

3.10

1.48

Histidine

0.30

0.06

0.99

0.02

0.65

0.47

Isoleucine

0.72

0.27

1.56

0.04

0.80

0.76

Leucine

1.12

0.35

2.75

0.05

1.66

1.39

Lysine

0.86

0.32

2.25

0.05

1.43

1.69

Methionine

0.40

0.06

0.51

0.01

0.46

0.63

Phenylalanine

0.72

0.11

1.78

0.11

0.85

0.74

Serine

0.92

0.10

1.87

0.03

0.80

0.79

Threonine

0.64

0.29

1.41

0.04

0.87

0.82

Tryptophan

0.21

0.06

0.51

0.01

0.18

0.16

Tyrosine

0.55

0.08

1.34

0.03

0.42

0.60

FATTYACIDS(g)

Caprylic acid

0.2

0.05

----------

------------

-----------

-------

Capric acid

0.06

0.12

-----------

------------

------------

--------

Palmitotoleic acid(MUFA-O-9)

0.04

0.14

0.21

------------

0.30

0.14

Oleic acid (MUFA-O-9)

4.80

1.12

5.18

Trace

1.43

0.60

Linoleic acid (PUFA-O-9)

1.88

0.11

9.13

Trace

0.75

0.06

Linolenic acid (PUFA-O-3)

0.10

0.04

0.20

-----------

0.03

0.05

Arachidonic acid (PUFA-O-3)

0.20

---------

-----------

-----------

0.03

0.002

EPA & DHA

0.03

0.03

------------

-----------

------------

1.28

MINERALS (mg)

Calcium

67

120

240

5

25

429

Phosphorus

240

90

230

40

245

305

Magnesium

12.4

68

125

30

20

13

Iron

2.5

0.2

10.4

0.48

2.5

2.5

Sulphur

165

30

24

37

50

16

Copper

0.6

0.04

1.12

0.16

1.0

0.63

Zinc

1.5

3.6

15

0.26

12

30

Iodine

0.07

0.03

0.005

-----------

0.17

1.0

Potassium

125

140

1610

247

280

288

VITAMINS

Vitamin A (mcg)

354

35.1

213.3

------------

16.8

17.1

Carotenoid pigment (mg)

1.5

0.17

0.42

------------

0.11

0.07

Vitamin D3(mcg)

1.75

0.025

-----------

------------

0.68

0.80

Vitamin E(mg)

3

0.3

4.0

0.04

0.85

1.1

Vitamin K(mg)

0.01

0.01

-----------

------------

0.02

0.01

Vitamin C(mg)

-------

2

-----------

12

2

6.8

Thiamin (B1) (mg)

0.10

0.05

0.73

0.10

0.16

0.06

Riboflavin (B2) (mg)

0.54

0.19

0.26

0.02

0.24

0.10

Niacin (B3) (mg)

0.10

0.10

2.2

1.2

4.4

0.85

Inositol(mg)

15.5

-------

-----------

-------------

------------

------------

Choline(mg)

800

88

247

100

595

480

Pyridoxine (B6) (mg)

0.26

---------

0.22

0.30

0.44

0.22

Biotin(mg)

0.025

0.04

0.03

-----------

0.03

0.05

Folic acid(mg)

0.08

0.08

0.10

0.01

0.09

0.04

Cyanacobalamine (B12) (mg)

0.003

0.001

------------

-----------

0.01

0.019

(Nys, 2001)

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