|Company Name||POULTRY LAYER FARM MANAGEMENT-MOLTING(ANY WHERE AFTER 60 WEEKS)|
|Address||FOR POULTRY FARM PROJECT REPORT AND TRAINING PLEASE CONTACT MR. RAGHU
EMAIL: [email protected]
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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POULTRY LAYER FARM MANAGEMENT-MOLTING
(ANY WHERE AFTER 60 WEEKS)
Generally the layer birds are manufactured up to 72 weeks and then liquidated. By this time the production of the flocks go down and the replacement flocks would be ready for housing. In a continuous replacement cycle, the regular farmer comes across situations where the production of eggs is not remunerative. The farm income and expenses do not match. This is mainly because of over production resulting in drastic reduction in feed for some time undergo a sort of rest came back in to production and give better production for a longer periods. The whole phenomenon is termed “forced molting”.
Molting is a natural and normal physiological phenomenon where the birds shed their feathers and enter in to a phase of physiological pauses of all birds in an endeavor to renew their feathers prior to migration, shorter days, or cooler weather. Normally, wild chickens molt once a year, as they produce but a few eggs, the molt is not associated with the laying cycle. However, domestic chickens have been bred for high egg production, and under ordinary circumstances they do not go through a compete molt until the end of a long and intensive laying period. If nothing is done to drop the feathers and grow a new set. It is possible however, to speed up the process through a program of forcing pullets to molt rapidly, growing a new set of feathers, and then stimulating them to begin producing eggs. The entire artificial program should take no longer that 6 to 8 weeks.
Force molting is practiced only to give the hen a rest at the end of a long period of egg production. The ability of a hen to produce eggs well after the molt can be attributed only to the rest period the bird receives.
WHY FORCE MOLTING
Although most of the farmers plan their force molting programs well in advance, the economic circumstances that causes a sudden decision to carry a flock over for a second period of egg production are usually:
1.Sudden slump in egg prices data; there are two seasons in the year one in April due to summer and again in August, September due to festival season. The prices go up after the season changes.
2.In situations where the market price of eggs slumps.
3.When the prices of cull birds are non-remunerative.
4.When there is premium price for larger eggs.
5.Cash cruch in business resulting from fall in egg prices.
6.Lack of enough finances to buy a new batch of chicks and provide for them until they reach sexual maturity.
7.The cash outlay for force molting the flock is less than buying and growing a fresh batch.
8.Serious problems of growing period with no solutions in sight. When new diseases crop up causing heavy mortality in growing for which new solutions are found.
AS GUIDE LINE
The Thumb rule for molting is to get down the body weight to mature body weight i.e. about 1250gms. Another way is to reduce the weight by25 % of the weight at the time of molting. The older birds after 60 weeks are generally 1650gms. Reduction of body weight from 1650 to 1250 is less stressful and does not result in excess mortality. The type of molting desired depends on the situation.
1.Fast molting If you need the flock to come back in to production fast. Go for water restriction also. Takes 6weeks from start to 50% production.
2.Normal molting. Takes about 8weeks. Keep the flock off feed till the flock looses 30 % weight and start feeding grower ration. Vaccinate the flock and resume layer feed as soon as the production sarts. If the initial weight of the flock is low, the flock may loose the weight faster and there can be mortality. To avoid mortality we may feed low density ration for two weeks.
3.Slower molt. If the flock looses enough body weight and we still do not need production, feed the flock with low quality ration like 10% protein and may be only 60gms per day to delay the production. We can delay the flock by another two weeks. This might take 10weeks.
REQUISITES OF FORCE MOLTING
When the situation demands reduction of procuction, the ideal flocks for molting are flocks above 60weeks because,
a)The production of older flocks is low.
b)The older birds are heavier and take longer time to loose weight.Ie. More feed saving. There are several requisites to a good program of force molting.
Many programs will do the job well. Stress is created to let the birds drop their feathers. Successful molting programs are those that create the least amount of stress, produce a rapid molt, and get the birds back in to high percentage of egg production, which lasts for a longer time. The three main factors involved are
1. Water withdrawal
Most of the molting programs call for water restriction as one means of creating the stress necessary to produce the molt. When it has been decided to force the molt, water is withheld for 2 or 3 days. Some programs call for water restriction for 2 days, after which water is restored, and then removed for another 2 days. There is an indication that water withdrawal will increases eggs size more when production resumed.
Be careful during hot weather. Restricting the water has its own disadvantages. Birds will be less able to remove the heat from their bodies. Panting will be excessive, and there may be dehydration and high mortality.
It is better not to restrict the water when the molting is planned during the summer. In winter and rainy seasons. Water can be withdrawn comfortably.
2. FEED WITHDRAWL
Allow flock to consume all the feed in the troughs, then start the 10-12 day feed restriction period. The number of days depends on condition of the flock and weather at the time of molt.
Practically all molting programs call for feed withdrawal, some for several days. Some use a from of ration restriction were only whose grain is used for several days. To create the stress by way of an unbalanced ration many programs call for the feeding of whole grain after the initial period of feed withdrawal in order to complete the molt. Shell feeding is optional during feed restriction period.
3. LIGHT REDUCTION
Most molting programs require reduction in the length of the light day. When this procedure is used, the period of day light must be reduced well below the threshold of 12 hours. In open houses cutting of the artificial light will at least produce some effect and help initiate the molt. Giving 24 hrs light of at least 2-3 days before the beginning of this program will help in an effective molt.
Normal grower and layer feed is used for molting. If the Feed cracking grain for 19-21 days after the feed restriction period. Protein should bot Exceed 10 % and calcium should not exceed 0.5%. Optional molt feed has vitamin pack and DCP and other feed additives. The birds must be fed early in the morning and should not put on full feed for the first couple of days. Fell feeding the first day can cause higher mortalities.
5.LAYER FEED & RE- LIGHTING:
After 3 weeks of molt feed, start a high quality protein ration until the feed consumption pattern is established. Then use the ration to the consumption level. Return lights to the flock when the lay ration is started, using minimum of 13 hrs plus 30 minute increase of light to a total of 16.5 to 17 hrs.
TYPES OF MOLTING
Egg producing hens may be molted one or more times, the two general types of programs are
TWO-CYCLE MOLTING PROGRAM:
This involves one molt and two cycles of egg production. The hens are force molted after about 10 to 12 months of egg production, brought back into about 6 months of egg production, then sold
Three-cycle molting program
This involves two molt and three cycles of egg production. The hens are first molted after about 9 months of production. Then held through another shorter production period, molted again, followed by an even shorter period of lay, then sold. This periodic molting program totals about 24 month: longer programs are seldom profitable
PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN
1.Be fore the starting of this program a vigorous culling of unhealthy, unthrifty and underweight birds should be carried out.
2.Only good first year flock should be molted.
3.Do not follow the water restriction program during hot climates.
4.Check the flocks for diseases and vaccinate them against pox, IB and ND.
5.The maximum mortality should not exceed 2 %
6. Body weight of the flock should be reduced to 23-23%
PROGRAMS FOR TWO CYCLE MOLTING
Of the many satisfactory molting programs. The three basic programs are:
1.Conventional Force Molting program (on again, off-again program)
2.Washington Force Molting Program(Low feed intake)
3.California Force Molting Program(No water Restriction)
4.Chemical Molting program( BY feeding of chemicals like Zinc, Low sodium diet etc)
The commonly followed Force Molting Program is
1.Grade the birds and cull the weak and lame birds.
2.One week prior to this program deworm the flock.
3.Four days after deworming vaccinate the flock against ND and IB
4.Give three days 24 hrs light before the start.
5.Weigh the selected birds on day 1 morning(About 50)
DAY FEED WATER LIGHT
1 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
2 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
3 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
4 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
5 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
6 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
7 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
8 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
9 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
10 NOFEED GIVEWATER NOLIGHT
11-13 40g/bird(growermash/cracked grain
7. On day 10, weigh the birds and check for the body weight reduction. If it is not reduced to a desired level continue the fasting.
8. If the mortality is increased abnormally after 7 days start feeding the birds with grower mash or cracked grains at the rate of 30g/bird and continue till the body weight is reduced to a desirable level.
9. A day before starting of the feeding. Give jaggary water @ 1kg/1000 birds and give electrolytes as well so that the systems get activated.
1.Body weights should be reduced to 23-25% during the feed restriction.
2.Most flocks will reach Zero production by the 6th or 7th day after feed restriction and light reduction.
3.Do not cut off the water at any time(Especially in summer)
4.Feathers will usually drop between 15-20 days.
5.Zero production will usually be sustained for 2-4 weeks., depending on length of feed restriction.
6.Flock will usually be back in production 5 weeks after starting feed restriction, and up to 50% production in 7 week, and peak in 9 weeks.
7.Repeat the lasota vaccine after the birds are back on full feed for at least 2 weeks.
8.Bringing birds into production too early result in rough shells, poor quality and lower peaks. Total eggs are not achieved if the flock is brought in too late.
9.Start the molt program after 60 weeks with plan to extend up to 105-108 week.
10.We can expect a 5% reduction of peak production achieved in the beginning.
COMPARISION OF FIRST AND SECOND LAYING CYCLES
After a force molt, egg production during the second cycle does not equal egg production the first. This would present a sever economic
Problem if the cost of producing eggs during the second cycle is higher than those during the first cycle. The higher cost most be balanced with better returns. The practice of recycling becomes one of cost analysis. Some of the factors involved are:
1.COST TO BRING TO EGG PRODUCTION:
It costs less to force molt a hen and bring her back into egg production that it does to grow a pullet from one day of age to egg production. This is a prime cost factor in making the decision of whether to molt or not to molt. It requires about 4.5 to 5.0 kg feed per bird during the molt.
2.AMORTIZATION OF BIRD COST.
The cost of growing a pullet, or the cost of force molting her at the end of her first cycle of lay and returning her to egg production. Must be amortized over the number of eggs she produces. Although the molted hen has a lower cost than the pullet, she will not produce as many eggs during her second cycle as during her first. This complicates the amortization value.
3. MORTALITY COMPARISION
The monthly rate of mortality usually is slightly grater during the First period of egg production than during the second. Although a Highly variable figure, it could be up to 2 % higher
Normally, feed consumption is only slightly higher is the second
Cycle than the first. But a lot depends on how much body weight was lost during the molt. If weight loss was great, the birds have tendency to remain light during their second cycle of production and there eat less feed.
5.LENGTH OF EGG PRODUCTION PERIOD
The profitable period of egg production is longer during the first cycle than during the second. Usually the second cycle lasts only 7 to 9 months. The most profitable two cycle program is to molt the birds at about 65 weeks of age and sell them 40 weeks later at 105 weeks.
6.RATE OF EGG PRODUCTION
The rate of egg production is lower in the second period compared with the corresponding month of the first period. At the peak of egg production the rate will be about 85 to 90 % of the first-year production peak but will drop to as low as 75% after 6 months of egg production.
Egg size is larger during the second cycle. This becomes an advantage only if there is a market for the larger eggs.
The average quality of eggshell is much better during the first cycle than during the second. Although shell quality deteriorates while the bird is in egg production, the molting rest usually restores shell quality to the equivalent of a 10 month old pullet flock when molting is initiated at 65 weeks of age. Shell quality drops more rapidly during the second than the first cycle.
9.INTERIOR EGG QUALITY
During the second cycle the contents of the eggs have a slightly lower quality than during the first. About 10 % fewer Grade A eggs may be expected during the second cycle compared with a similar production period during the first.
So the force molting and recycling a flock calls for accurate decisions: like When should be flock be molted? Is the molt progressing on schedule? How long should the hens remain in production during the second cycle? What are the costs and benefits?
An adequate record system must be maintained which will also serve as a guide to future force molting programs.
FOR POULTRY FARM PROJECT REPORT AND TRAINING PLEASE CONTACT MR. RAGHU
EMAIL: [email protected]
|Last Updated: 2014-01-11 05:59:57|
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