Company Name  SAMPADA FARMS & CONSULTANTS 
Contact Person  Mr.Raghu Ram 
Address  Address 408Panchasheela Towers Park Lane, M.G.Road, SECUNDERABAD500 003. A.P., INDIA Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. 
Zip / Postal Code  500 003 
Telephone  91 40 277 21 868, 391010 41 
Fax  91 40 278 11 087 
Click here to email us  
Website  www.sampadafarms.com 
Description 
USEFUL INFORMATION
============== Please click on the below link for full details http://sampadafarms.com/usefulinformation.htm Plants in a hectare Area of acre & hectare Measuring small lots Water Measuring inch of water Measures & weights of water Measuring area Computation of acreage Measures of heat Standard multipliers Cubic feet Metric system Convert multiplications Measuring equalents Fertilisers – NPK NPK – availability Oil cakes – NPK Conversion factors Soil rating chart Element deficiency To find the number of plants required to plant an in acre, multiply the distance apart that the plants are to be set in the rows, by the distance between the rows, then divide 43,560 (the number of square feet to the acre) by the result. Example – suppose the plants are to be set 2 feet apart in the rows and the rows are 2 feet apart. 2 x 2 = 4 feet, 43,560 divided by 4 =10890, the number of plants required to the acre. If the plants are to be set one inch apart, it would be necessary to multiply 43,560 square feet by 144, the number of square inches in a foot, giving 6,272,640 plants required to the acre if set out one inch apart. If set 2 inches by 2 inches apart, multiply 2 x 2=4 inches, and divined 6,272,640 by result 4, which equals 1,568,160. Distance in feet Plant Density Distance in feet Plant Density 1x1 43,560 12x12 302 1x1.5 29,040 12x15 242 1.5x1.5 19,360 12x16 226 2x2 10,890 15x15 193 2x2.5 8,712 16x16 170 2x3 7,260 15x18 161 2.5x2.5 6,969 15x20 145 3x3 4840 16x20 136 3x4 3,630 18x18 134 4x4 2,720 18x20 121 4x4.5 2,420 18x21 115 4x5 2,178 20x20 108 4.5x4.5 2,151 18x24 100 5x5 1,742 21x21 98 5x6 1,452 24x24 75 6x6 1,210 25x25 69 6x7.5 960 6x8 907 27x30 53 7.5x7.5 774 27x27 59 8x8 680 28x30 51 7.5x9 644 8x10 544 30x30 48 9x9 537 30x36 40 10x10 435 33x33 40 9x12 403 36x36 33 10x12 363 40x40 27 10, 010 Sq. mts. Distance in Mts. Plant Density Distance in Mts. Plant Density 1x1 10,010 4.5x4.5 494 1x1.5 6,673 5x5 400 1.5x1.5 4,448 5x6 333 2x2 2,500 6x6 278 2x2.5 2,000 6x7.5 222 2x3 1,668 6x8 208 2.5x2.5 1,600 7.5x7.5 178 3x3 1,112 8x8 156 3x4 834 7.5x9 148 4x4 625 8x10 125 4x4.5 556 9x9 123 4x5 500 10x10 100 S.No Unit One Acre One Hectare Area 0.404 Hectare 2.471 Acre 1 Sq. Feet 43,560 1,07,636 2 Sq. Yards 4840 11,959 3 Sq. Mtrs 4051 10,010 4 Sq. Inches 62,72,640 1,54,99,584 5 Grounds 18.15 45 6 Cents 100 247.13 7 Guntas 40 98.840 8 Ares 40.48 100 10 rods x 16 rods … 1 acre 8 rods x 20 rods… 1 acre 5 rods x 32 rods… 1 acre 4 rods x 40 rods… 1 acre 5 yds. X 968 yds… 1 acre 10 yds. X 484 yds… 1 acre 20 yds. X 242 yds… 1 acre 40 yds. X 121 yds… 1 acre 208 7/10 feet x 208 7/10 feet… 1 acre 220 feet x 198 feet… 1 acre 110 feet x 396 feet… 1 acre 60 feet x 726 feet… 1 acre 120 feet x 363 feet… 1 acre 20 feet x 2178 feet… 1 acre 30 feet x 1452 feet… 1 acre 25 feet x 1742 feet… 1 acre 200 feet x 108.9 feet… ½ acre 147 ½ feet x 147 feet… ½ acre 100 feet x 145.2 feet… 1/3 acre 120 ½ feet x 120 ½ feet… 1/3 acre 100 feet x 108.9 feet… ¼ acre 104 3/8 feet x 104 3/8 feet… ¼ acre 73 ¾ feet x 73 ¾ feet… 1/8 acre By volume Hydrogen 2 By weight Hydrogen 1 Oxygen 1 Oxygen 8 Maximum density at 4° Cent. Between 4° Cent. and 0° Cent., water expands by cold (An inch of rain) Water is measured by the acreinch, which means sufficient water to cover one acre, one inch deep. For instance, six acre inches is water sufficient to cover six acres one inch deep, tow acres three inches deep or one acre six inches deep. One acre contains 43,560 square feet or 6,272,640 square inches. An inch deep of rain on an acre yields 6,272,640 cubic inches of water, which, at 277.274 cubic inches to the gallon, makes 22,622.5 gallons; and as a gallon of distilled water weights 10lbs., the rainfall on an acre is 226,225 lbs. Avoirdupois. At 2,00 lbs. To the ton, an inch deep of rain weighs 113.115 tons per acre, or for every 100th of an inch (1 cent.) considerably over aton of water falls per acre. Cubic inches Lbs. Weight. Kilogrammes. Litres. Gallons One lb. Weight … 27.73 1 0.454 0.454 0.1 One gallon … 277.3 10 4.54 4.54 1. One Cubic foot … 1728. 62.3 28.31 28.31 6.23 One Cubic Yard … … 1682.7 764.5 764.5 168.27 One Ton (weight) … … 2240. 1016. 1016. 224. One Barrel … … 360. 163.3 163.3 36. One Hogshead … … 540. 244.9 244.9 54. Where a field or piece of land is not a regular area, such as a square or a rectangle, the simplest method of calculating its area in square feet or yards, is to draw a sketch showing the measurements of each side (taking care to draw accurate angles), and then divided the sketch into convenient triangles. Calculate the area of each triangle and add; the total thus arrived at will be the area of the irregular land. The area of a triangle can be found by multiplying the base by onehalf the altitude, altitude meaning the perpendicular line drawn from the vertex of the triangle to the corresponding base. In the computation of acreage the easiest method will be links. 7.92inches = 1 link. 100 links, or 66 ft., or 4 poles = 1 chain 10 chains long by 1 broad, or 10 square chains = 1 acre, or 100,000 square links = 1 acre 80 chains = 1 mile. To reduce square links to acres, point off five figures to the rights, that is, divided by 100,000, the result is acres and a fraction in decimals. Multiply the decimals by 4 and points off five places again, which gives rood and a fraction in decimals. Multiply the decimal by 40 and mark off 5 figures, then we get poles E.g., 1234567 square links =12.34567 acres = .34567 x 4 =1.38268 roods = .38268 x 40 =15.30720 poles Answers – 12 acres, 1 road, 15.30720 poles. Three scales are in common use, Fahrenheit (F.), Centigrade (C.), and Reaumur (R.). The freezing and boiling points of water on each of these scales are: Freezing. Boiling. Fahrenheit … 32° 0° Centigrade … 212° 100° Reaumur … 0° 80° To convent F. to C. subtract 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9. To convent C. to F. multiply by 9, divide by 5 and add 32. To convent F. to R. subtract 32, multiply by 4 and divide by 9. Circle, area = Square of radius x 3.14159 Circle circumference = diameter x 3.14159, or 31/7 nearly Circle circumference = radius x 6.283185 Circle diameter = circumference x 0.31831 Circle diameter = Square root of area x 1.12838 Circle radius = Circumference x 0.159155 Circle radius = Square root of area x 0.56419 Circle side of sq. of eq. area =Diameter x 0.886 Circle side of inscribed square =Diameter x 0.707 Cone or Pyramid, solidity = Area of base x onethird of altitude Ellipse, area = Product of diameter x 0.7854 The area of the surface of = Square of the diameter x 3.1416 sphere The volume of a sphere = Cube of the diameter x .5236 How to calculate the cubic content of a tree (Measuring round timber.) The conventional method of finding the cubic contents of round timber is as follow:  Multiply onefourth of the average girth square by the length; Or G2 X L/4 Note:  if the girth is taken in inches and the length in feet, divide the result by 144 to obtain the contents in cubic feet. 1 Metre (m) =10 decimetres=39.37 inches. =100 Centimetres (cm.) =1000 Millimetres (mm.) 10 Metres =1 decametre=10.93611yds. 100 Metres =1 hectometre=109.3611 yds. 1000Metres =1 kilometre =1093.611 yds 10 Millimetres (mm) =1 Centimetre (cm)=0.3937 inch. 10 Centimetre =1 decimetre=3.9371 inches. 5 cm (Centimetre) = About 2 inches. Kilometre is 0.621 of a mile, or 1093.6 yards or about 3/8 of a mile. Litre is 61 cub. Ins, or 1.76 imperial pints, or 0.22 of a gallon. Gram is 15.432 grains Troy. Kilogram is approximately 2.205 pounds avoir. (2 lbs. 3 ozs.) I yard = .914401 metres. I mile = 1.609347 kilometres To convert Multiply by Cubic centigrade into fluid ounces … 0.0352 Litres into fluid ounces … 35.2 Fluid ounces into cubic centimetres … 28.42 Pints into litres … 0.568 Grams into grains … 15.432 Gram into ounces avoir … 0.03587 Grams into ounces troy … 0.3215 Kilogrammes into pounds … 2.2046 Grains into grams … 0.0648 Ounces avoirdupois into grams … 28.35 Ounces troy into grams … 31.104 Metres into inches … 39.37 Inches into metres … 0.0254 1 Teaspoon 5 ml. Or 5 gms 1 Level tablespoonful 3 level teaspoonfuls 1 fluid Ounce 2 table spoonful 1 Cupful 8 fluid ounces 1 Pint2cupfuls 16 fluid ounces 1 Quart2Pints 32 fluid ounces 1 Gallon4Quarts 128 fluid ounces 1 Millilitre 1 cubic centimetre 1 Litre1000 millilitres 1.057 liquid quart 1 Percent10, 000 parts per million 8 fluid ounces 100 gals 1 Pound avoirdupois 453.59 grams S.No. Fertiliser Available % N P K 1 Ammonium Sulphate 21   2 Calcium Ammonium Nitrate 25   3 Urea 46   4 Single Super Phosphate  16  5 Triple Super Phosphate  48  6 Sulphate of Potash   4850 7 Murate of Potash   5160 8 Bone Meal 3.5  4.5 24  25  9 Di Ammonium Sulphate 18 46  10 UreaAmmonium Phosphate/Potash 14 35 14 11 UreaAmmonium Phosphate/Potash 14 28 14 12 UreaAmmonium Phosphate/Potash 22 22 11 13 UreaAmmonium Phosphate  28 28 14 Ammonium Nitro PhosphateGrade1 18 18 9 15 Ammonium Nitro PhosphateGrade2 15 15 15 16 Rock Phosphate  25  17 Ammonium Nitro Phosphate (Sulphate) 20 20 15 S.No. NITROGEN Fertilisers % S.No. PHOSPHATE Fertilisers % 1 Urea 46 22 Di ammonium phosphate 53 2 Liquid ammonia 82 23 Basic clog 14 3 Ammonium Nitrate 33 POTASH Fertilisers 4 Ammonium sulphate 20.5 24 Potassium chloride 60 5 Ammonium chloride 25 25 Potassium sulphate 50 6 Ammonium carbonate 24 26 Potassium Magnesium sulphate 28 7 Ammonium bicarbonate 17 27 Kynite 19 8 Ammonium sulphate nitrate 26 28 Potassium carbonate 66 9 Calcium nitrate 15 29 Potassium nitrate 44 10 Calcium ammonium nitrate 20 30 Sylvinyte 20 11 Calcium Cyanamid 21 31 Corpalite 17 12 Ammonium sodium sulphate 16 32 Copper sulphate 2535 13 Aqua ammonia 20 33 Copper carbonate 57 14 Ammonium Phosphate 20 34 Zinc Sulphate 2325 15 Sodium Nitrate 16 35 Magnesium Sulphate 910 PHOSPHATE Fertlisers 36 Magnesium carbonate 4 16 Rock phosphate 25 IRON Fertilisers 17 Single Super Phosphate 16 37 Ferrous sulphate 20 18 Double Super Phosphate 32 38 Calcium sulphate 23 19 Triple Super Phosphate 48 39 Calcium oxide 55 20 Ammophos 48 40 Calcium carbonate 32 21 Bone meal 20 Material Percentage composition N P2O5 K2O Castor cake 4.04.4 1.9 1.4 Groundnut cake 6.57.5 1.3 1.5 Cottonseed cake Decorticated Undecorticated 1.6 1.6 6.9 3.6 3.1 2.5 Rape cake 4.8 2.0 1.3 Linseed cake 4.7 11.7 1.3 Coconut cake 3.4 1.5 2.0 Palmnut cake 2.6 1.1 0.5 Neem or margosa cake 5.25.6 1.1 1.5 Safflower cake Decorticated Undecorticated 7.9 4.9 2.2 1.4 1.9 1.2 Sesamum cake 4.76.2 2.1 1.3 Mahua cake 2.5 0.8 1.9 Jambo cake 5.0 1.7 1.9 Karanj cake 4.0 0.9 1.3 Niger cake 4.7 1.8 1.3 Elements Multiplied by Gives corresponding quantity of Nitrogen 4.854 Ammonium sulphate Nitrogen 2.222 Urea Nitrogen 3.846 Ammonium sulphate nitrate Nitrogen 4.000 Ammonium chloride Nitrogen 3.030 Ammonium nitrate Phosphoric acid (P2O5) 6.250 Super phosphate, single Phosphoric acid (P2O5) 2.222 Super phosphate, double Phosphoric acid (P2O5) 2.857 Di calcium phosphate Phosphoric acid (P2O5) 5.000 Bonemeal, raw Potash (K2O) 1.666 Muriate of potash Potash (K2O) 2.000 Sulphate of potash Ammonium sulphate 0.206 Nitrogen Sodium nitrate 0.155 Nitrogen Urea 0.450 Nitrogen Ammonium sulphate nitrate 0.260 Nitrogen Ammonium chloride 0.250 Nitrogen Ammonium nitrate 0.330 Nitrogen Super phosphate, single 0.160 Phosphoric acid (P2O5) Super phosphate, double 0.450 Phosphoric acid (P2O5) Di calcium phosphate 0.350 Phosphoric acid (P2O5) Bonemeal, raw 0.200 Phosphoric acid (P2O5) Muriate of potash 0.600 Potash (K2O) Sulphate of potash 0.500 Potash (K2O) SL Sandy Loam SCL Sandy Clay Loam CL Clay S.No Type Light Soils  SL, SCL Heavy Soils  CL 1 Acidic 0 – 5.9 0 – 5.0 2 Neutral 6 – 7.5 6 – 7.5 3 Weekly Alkaline 7.6 – 8.0 7.6 – 8.0 4 Moderately Alkaline 8.1  8.5 8.1 – 9.0 5 Highly Alkaline 8.5 and above 9.1 and above S.No. Nutrient Low Medium High 1 Organic carbon (as a measure of available nitrogen) OR Below 0.5% 0.50.75 % Above 0.75% 2 Available Nitrogen (N) Natrajani Below 280kg/ha 280560kg/ha Above 560kg/ha 3 Available Phosphorus (P) Bhaswaram – P2O5 Below 8kg/acre 8kg20kg/acre Above 20kg/acre 4 Available Potassium (K) Potash – K2O Below 60kg/acre 61kg – 120kg/acre Above 120kg/acre EC millimhos/Cms S.No SL SCL Cl 1 0 – 1.0 0 – 1.5 0 – 2.0 Normal 2 1.1 – 2.0 1.6 – 3.0 2.1 – 4.0 Critical for Germination 3 2.1 – 3.0 3.1 – 4.5 4.1 – 6.0 Critical for growth 4 Above 3.0 Above 4.6 Above 6.0 Injurious to most crops Severe deficiencies of individual essential elements produce a set of characteristic effects in the external appearance of leaves, stems, roots, blossoms and fruits. Visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency include stunted growth, chlorosis, mottling of leaves, abnormal curling of leaves, leaf discolouration, necrosis, premature senescence of leaves and blossoms. The following is an account of visual symptoms of deficiency of individual essential elements. When plants are deficient in nitrogen they become stunted and yellow in appearance. This yellowing usually appears first on the lower leaves, the upper leaves remaining green. The matur4e parts of the plant are first affected because nitrogen is translocated from the older to the younger actively growing regions. Flowering is reduced. Deficiency symptoms of sulphur resemble those of nitrogen deficiencies. However, unlike nitrogen, sulphur does not appear to be easily translocated. The leaves are light green to yellow, appearing first along the veins of the young leaves. The stems are slender. Particularly in cereals, the shortage of phosphorus will cause marked reduction in plant growth. Young plants are stunted under severe deficiency of phosphorus. Dark green or bluegreen foliage is one of the first symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in many species. Often, anthocyanins develop along the veins. Fruits ripen slowly. The deficiency symptoms usually appear first on the lower leaves of annual plants and progress towards the top. The leaves are dark bluegreen to pale green with marginal chlorosis and under necrosis appearing first on old leaves. Growth is subnormal and under severe conditions, terminal and lateral buds may die. Potassium deficiency is associated with a decrease in resistance to pests and diseases. Magnesium deficiency symptoms first appear on the lower leaves and in many species of plants it results in interveinal chlorosis of the leaf in which only the veins remain green. Severely affected leaves may wilt and shed or abscise without the wilting stage. Brittleness of the leaves is common and necrosis often occurs. The deficiency of calcium stops the development of terminal bud; plant growth ceases in the absence of adequate supply of calcium. Leaves are chlorotic, rolled and curled. Plants fail to develop due to failure of terminal buds. Roots are poorly developed and they are prone to infection by bacteria and fungi. In corn, deficiency of calcium prevents the emergence and unfolding of the new leaves. A deficiency of iron appears on the young leaves of plants. It is most frequently seen in crops growing on calcarious or alkaline soils. Many crops exhibiting deficiency of this element are blue berries, sorghum, soyabeans, straw berries, vegetable crops and ornamentals. The young leaves develop an interveinal chlorosis which progresses rapidly over the entire leaf. In severe cases the leaves turn completely white. Interveinal chlorosis appearing first on young leaves is the most striking symptoms of iron deficiency. All aerial parts become chlorotic and often necrotic. The leaves may be completely bleached, the margins and the tips are scorched. The leaves often show an interveinal chlorosis, with veins green and leaf web tissue yellow or white, appearing first on young leaves. This mottled chlorosis may spread to the old leaves. The stems are yellowish green which are often hard and woody. Carotenes are reduced. Plans are badly stunted in severe cases of deficiency. Deficiency of zinc was observed in corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, vegetables, legumes, and citrus. Zinc deficiency leads to “little leaf” and ‘rosette’ in fruit trees. Leaves are chlorotic and necrotic, sometimes with premature shedding of leaves. Flowering and fruiting are much reduced under conditions of severe zinc deficiency. Copper deficiency was retorted on crops growing on peat and muck soils. Wilting of terminal shoots takes place, frequently by death. The leaf colour is often faded due to the reduction of carotene and other pigments. Flowering and fruiting are curtailed. Copper deficiency causes iron accumulation in the nodes of corn plants. Interveinal chlorosis and mottled appearance are the major symptoms with molybdenum deficiency. Leaf blades become necrotic and disintegrate, leaving only a much reduced strip along the midrib resulting in the symptom known as ‘whiptail’. Deficiency of Boron is reported in citrus fruit. Terminal leaves are necrotic and shed prematurely. Tissues of plants with this deficiency appear hard, dry and brittle. Roots are short and stubby. Plants are dwarfed and stunted. Flowering and seed production are severally affected, or lacking. In citrus, the peel is uneven in thickness, the fruit is lumpy, and gummy deposits can be seen on the fruit. In the heat of the day, the tips of the young leaves wilt and dangle down, Wilting is followed by chlorosis, bronzing and necrosis. Under severe conditions of deficiency, plants are spindly and stuned. 
Last Updated: 20101119 15:29:24  
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