SAMPADA FARMS & CONSULTANTS

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Contact Information
Company Name SAMPADA FARMS & CONSULTANTS
Contact Person Mr.Raghu Ram
Address Address 408-Panchasheela Towers Park Lane, M.G.Road, SECUNDERABAD-500 003. A.P., INDIA
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Zip / Postal Code 500 003
Telephone 91 40 277 21 868, 391010 41
Fax 91 40 278 11 087
Email Click here to email us
Website www.sampadafarms.com
Description USEFUL INFORMATION
-------==============
Please click on the below link for full details
http://sampadafarms.com/usefulinformation.htm
Plants in a hectare
Area of acre & hectare
Measuring small lots
Water
Measuring inch of water
Measures & weights of water
Measuring area
Computation of acreage
Measures of heat

Standard multipliers
Cubic feet
Metric system
Convert multiplications
Measuring equalents
Fertilisers – NPK
NPK – availability
Oil cakes – NPK
Conversion factors
Soil rating chart
Element deficiency


To find the number of plants required to plant an in acre, multiply the distance apart that the plants are to be set in the rows, by the distance between the rows, then divide 43,560 (the number of square feet to the acre) by the result.
Example – suppose the plants are to be set 2 feet apart in the rows and the rows are 2 feet apart. 2 x 2 = 4 feet, 43,560 divided by 4 =10890, the number of plants required to the acre.

If the plants are to be set one inch apart, it would be necessary to multiply 43,560 square feet by 144, the number of square inches in a foot, giving 6,272,640 plants required to the acre if set out one inch apart. If set 2 inches by 2 inches apart, multiply 2 x 2=4 inches, and divined 6,272,640 by result 4, which equals 1,568,160.




Distance
in feet Plant
Density
Distance
in feet
Plant
Density

1x1
43,560
12x12
302

1x1.5
29,040
12x15
242

1.5x1.5
19,360
12x16
226

2x2
10,890
15x15
193

2x2.5
8,712
16x16
170

2x3
7,260
15x18
161

2.5x2.5
6,969
15x20
145

3x3
4840
16x20
136

3x4
3,630
18x18
134

4x4
2,720
18x20
121

4x4.5
2,420
18x21
115

4x5
2,178
20x20
108

4.5x4.5
2,151
18x24
100

5x5
1,742
21x21
98

5x6
1,452
24x24
75

6x6
1,210
25x25
69

6x7.5
960
  
  

6x8
907
27x30
53

7.5x7.5
774
27x27
59

8x8
680
28x30
51

7.5x9
644
  
  

8x10
544
30x30
48

9x9
537
30x36
40

10x10
435
33x33
40

9x12
403
36x36
33

10x12
363
40x40
27






                                          10, 010 Sq. mts.

Distance
in Mts.
Plant
Density
Distance
in Mts.
Plant
Density

1x1
10,010
4.5x4.5
494

1x1.5
6,673
5x5
400

1.5x1.5
4,448
5x6
333

2x2
2,500
6x6
278

2x2.5
2,000
6x7.5
222

2x3
1,668
6x8
208

2.5x2.5
1,600
7.5x7.5
178

3x3
1,112
8x8
156

3x4
834
7.5x9
148

4x4
625
8x10
125

4x4.5
556
9x9
123

4x5
500
10x10
100




S.No
Unit
One Acre
One Hectare


Area
0.404
Hectare
2.471
Acre

1
Sq.  Feet
43,560
1,07,636

2
Sq.  Yards
4840
11,959

3
Sq.  Mtrs
4051
10,010

4
Sq. Inches
62,72,640
1,54,99,584

5
Grounds
18.15
45

6
Cents
100
247.13

7
Guntas
40
98.840

8
Ares
40.48
100





10 rods x 16 rods …
1 acre

8 rods x 20 rods…
1 acre

5 rods x 32 rods…
1 acre

4 rods x 40 rods…
1 acre

5 yds. X 968 yds…
1 acre

10 yds. X 484 yds…
1 acre

20 yds. X 242 yds…
1 acre

40 yds. X 121 yds…
1 acre

208 7/10 feet x 208 7/10 feet…
1 acre

220 feet x 198 feet…
1 acre

110 feet x 396 feet…
1 acre

60 feet x 726 feet…
1 acre

120 feet x 363 feet…
1 acre

20 feet x 2178 feet…
1 acre

30 feet x 1452 feet…
1 acre

25 feet x 1742 feet…
1 acre

200 feet x 108.9 feet…
½ acre

147 ½ feet x 147 feet…
½ acre

100 feet x 145.2 feet…
1/3 acre

120 ½ feet x 120 ½ feet…
1/3 acre

100 feet x 108.9 feet…
¼ acre

104 3/8 feet x 104 3/8 feet…
¼ acre

73 ¾ feet x 73 ¾ feet…
1/8 acre





By volume
Hydrogen
2
  

By weight
Hydrogen
1

Oxygen    
1
Oxygen
    8



Maximum density at 4° Cent.
Between 4° Cent. and 0° Cent., water expands by cold


(An inch of rain)
Water is measured by the acre-inch, which means sufficient water to cover one acre, one inch deep.  For instance, six acre inches is water sufficient to cover six acres one inch deep, tow acres three inches deep or one acre six inches deep.

One acre contains 43,560 square feet or 6,272,640 square inches.  An inch deep of rain on an acre yields 6,272,640 cubic inches of water, which, at 277.274 cubic inches to the gallon, makes 22,622.5 gallons; and as a gallon of distilled water weights 10lbs., the rainfall on an acre is 226,225 lbs. Avoirdupois.  At 2,00 lbs.   To the ton, an inch deep of rain weighs 113.115 tons per acre, or for every 100th of an inch (1 cent.)  considerably over aton of water falls per acre.



Cubic inches
Lbs. Weight.
Kilogrammes.
Litres.
Gallons
One lb. Weight …
27.73
1
0.454
0.454
0.1

One gallon …
277.3
10
4.54
4.54
1.

One Cubic foot …
1728.
62.3
28.31
28.31
6.23

One Cubic Yard …

1682.7
764.5
764.5
168.27

One Ton (weight) …

2240.
1016.
1016.
224.

One Barrel …

360.
163.3
163.3
36.

One Hogshead …

540.
244.9
244.9
54.




Where a field or piece of land is not a regular area, such as a square or a rectangle, the simplest method of calculating its area in square feet or yards, is to draw a sketch showing the measurements of each side (taking care to draw accurate angles), and then divided the sketch into convenient triangles.  Calculate the area of each triangle and add; the total thus arrived at will be the area of the irregular land.

The area of a triangle can be found by multiplying the base by one-half the altitude, altitude meaning the perpendicular line drawn from the vertex of the triangle to the corresponding base.


In the computation of acreage the easiest method will be links.

7.92inches = 1 link.

100 links, or 66 ft., or 4 poles = 1 chain

10 chains long by 1 broad, or 10 square chains = 1 acre, or

100,000 square links = 1 acre

80 chains = 1 mile.


To reduce square links to acres, point off five figures to the rights, that is, divided by 100,000, the result is acres and a fraction in decimals.  Multiply the decimals by 4 and points off five places again, which gives rood and a fraction in decimals.  Multiply the decimal by 40 and mark off 5 figures, then we get poles-

E.g., 1234567 square links

=12.34567 acres
= .34567 x 4

=1.38268 roods
= .38268 x 40

=15.30720 poles
Answers – 12 acres, 1 road, 15.30720 poles.



Three scales are in common use, Fahrenheit (F.), Centigrade (C.), and Reaumur (R.).   The freezing and boiling points of water on each of these scales are:




Freezing.
Boiling.

Fahrenheit    …
32°


Centigrade    …
212°
100°

Reaumur       …

80°


To convent F. to C.   subtract 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9.
To convent C. to F.   multiply by 9, divide by 5 and add 32.
To convent F. to R.   subtract 32, multiply by 4 and divide by 9.


Circle, area                      
= Square of radius x 3.14159

Circle circumference          
= diameter x 3.14159, or 31/7 nearly

Circle circumference                    
= radius x 6.283185

Circle diameter                
= circumference x 0.31831

Circle diameter                
= Square root of area x 1.12838

Circle radius                    
= Circumference x 0.159155

Circle radius                    
= Square root of area x 0.56419

Circle side of sq. of eq. area
=Diameter x 0.886

Circle side of inscribed square
=Diameter x 0.707

Cone or Pyramid, solidity  
= Area of base x one-third of altitude

Ellipse, area                    
= Product of diameter x 0.7854

The area of the surface of
= Square of the diameter x 3.1416

sphere

The volume of a sphere    
= Cube of the diameter x .5236



How to calculate the cubic content of a tree (Measuring round timber.)

The conventional method of finding the cubic contents of round timber is as follow: -
          
                                                                     Multiply one-fourth of the average girth square by the length;

                                                                                                            Or G2 X L/4

Note: -  if the girth is taken in inches and the length in feet, divide the result by 144 to obtain the contents in cubic feet.


1 Metre (m)

              
=10 decimetres=39.37 inches.
=100 Centimetres (cm.)
=1000 Millimetres (mm.)

10 Metres
=1 decametre=10.93611yds.

100 Metres
=1 hectometre=109.3611 yds.

1000Metres
=1 kilometre =1093.611 yds

10 Millimetres (mm)
=1 Centimetre (cm)=0.3937 inch.

10 Centimetre
=1 decimetre=3.9371 inches.

5 cm (Centimetre)
= About 2 inches.

Kilometre is 0.621 of a mile, or 1093.6 yards or about 3/8 of a mile.

Litre is 61 cub.  Ins, or 1.76 imperial pints, or 0.22 of a gallon.

Gram is 15.432 grains Troy.

Kilogram is approximately 2.205 pounds avoir.  (2 lbs.  3 ozs.)

I yard
= .914401 metres.

I mile
= 1.609347 kilometres



To convert Multiply by
Cubic centigrade into fluid ounces          …
0.0352

Litres into fluid ounces                …
35.2

Fluid ounces into cubic centimetres          …                
28.42

Pints into litres     …                            
0.568

Grams into grains    …                
15.432

Gram into ounces avoir     …      
0.03587

Grams into ounces troy     …      
0.3215

Kilogrammes into pounds  …      
2.2046

Grains into grams    …                
0.0648

Ounces avoirdupois into grams    …
28.35

Ounces troy into grams     …      
31.104

Metres into inches   …                
39.37

Inches into metres   …                
0.0254


  
1 Teaspoon
5 ml. Or 5 gms

1 Level tablespoonful
3 level teaspoonfuls

1 fluid Ounce
2 table spoonful

1 Cupful
8 fluid ounces

1 Pint-2-cupfuls
16 fluid ounces

1 Quart-2-Pints
32 fluid ounces

1 Gallon-4-Quarts
128 fluid ounces

1 Millilitre
1 cubic centimetre

1 Litre-1000 millilitres
1.057 liquid quart

1 Percent-10, 000 parts per million
8 fluid ounces 100 gals

1 Pound avoirdupois
453.59 grams



S.No.
Fertiliser Available %
N
P
K

1
Ammonium Sulphate
21
-
-

2
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
25
-
-

3
Urea
46
-
-

4
Single Super Phosphate
-
16
-

5
Triple Super Phosphate
-
48
-

6
Sulphate of Potash
-
-
48-50

7
Murate of Potash
-
-
51-60

8
Bone Meal
3.5 - 4.5
24 - 25
-

9
Di Ammonium Sulphate
18
46
-

10
Urea-Ammonium Phosphate/Potash
14
35
14

11
Urea-Ammonium Phosphate/Potash
14
28
14

12
Urea-Ammonium Phosphate/Potash
22
22
11

13
Urea-Ammonium Phosphate
-
28
28

14
Ammonium Nitro Phosphate-Grade-1
18
18
9

15
Ammonium Nitro Phosphate-Grade-2
15
15
15

16
Rock Phosphate
-
25
-

17
Ammonium Nitro Phosphate (Sulphate)
20
20
15



S.No.
NITROGEN
Fertilisers
%
S.No.
PHOSPHATE
Fertilisers %

1
Urea
46
22
Di ammonium phosphate
53

2
Liquid ammonia
82
23
Basic clog
14

3
Ammonium Nitrate
33
  
POTASH
Fertilisers  

4
Ammonium sulphate
20.5
24
Potassium chloride
60

5
Ammonium chloride
25
25
Potassium sulphate
50

6
Ammonium carbonate
24
26
Potassium Magnesium sulphate
28

7
Ammonium bicarbonate
17
27
Kynite
19

8
Ammonium sulphate nitrate
26
28
Potassium carbonate
66

9
Calcium nitrate
15
29
Potassium nitrate
44

10
Calcium ammonium nitrate
20
30
Sylvinyte
20

11
Calcium Cyanamid
21
31
Corpalite
17

12
Ammonium sodium sulphate
16
32
Copper sulphate
25-35

13
Aqua ammonia
20
33
Copper carbonate
57

14
Ammonium Phosphate
20
34
Zinc Sulphate
23-25

15
Sodium Nitrate
16
35
Magnesium Sulphate
9-10


PHOSPHATE
Fertlisers  
36
Magnesium carbonate
4

16
Rock phosphate
25
  
IRON Fertilisers
  

17
Single Super Phosphate
16
37
Ferrous sulphate
20

18
Double Super Phosphate
32
38
Calcium sulphate
23

19
Triple Super Phosphate
48
39
Calcium oxide
55

20
Ammophos
48
40
Calcium carbonate
32

21
Bone meal
20
  
  
  





Material
Percentage composition  

                                  

  N                     P2O5               K2O
  

Castor cake 4.0-4.4
1.9
1.4
  

Groundnut cake
6.5-7.5
1.3

1.5
  


  


Cotton-seed cake
Decorticated
Undecorticated
  
  
  
1.6

1.6
  

6.9

3.6
  3.1

2.5
  

Rape cake
4.8
2.0
1.3
  

Linseed cake
4.7
11.7
1.3
  

Coconut cake
3.4
1.5
2.0
  

Palmnut cake
2.6
1.1
0.5
  

Neem or margosa cake
5.2-5.6
1.1
1.5
  

Safflower cake
Decorticated
Undecorticated
  7.9

4.9
  2.2

1.4
  1.9

1.2
  

Sesamum cake
4.7-6.2
2.1
1.3
  

Mahua cake
2.5
0.8
1.9
  

Jambo cake
5.0
1.7
1.9
  

Karanj cake
4.0
0.9
1.3
  

Niger cake
4.7
1.8
1.3
  



Elements Multiplied by Gives corresponding

quantity of

Nitrogen 4.854
Ammonium sulphate
Nitrogen
2.222
Urea

Nitrogen 3.846
Ammonium sulphate nitrate
Nitrogen 4.000
Ammonium chloride
Nitrogen
3.030
Ammonium nitrate

Phosphoric acid (P2O5)
6.250
Super phosphate, single

Phosphoric acid (P2O5)
2.222
Super phosphate, double

Phosphoric acid (P2O5)
2.857
Di calcium phosphate

Phosphoric acid (P2O5)
5.000
Bone-meal, raw

Potash (K2O)
1.666
Muriate of potash

Potash (K2O)
2.000
Sulphate of potash

Ammonium sulphate 0.206
Nitrogen
Sodium nitrate
0.155
Nitrogen

Urea 0.450
Nitrogen

Ammonium sulphate nitrate 0.260
Nitrogen

Ammonium chloride 0.250
Nitrogen

Ammonium nitrate
0.330
Nitrogen

Super phosphate, single
0.160
Phosphoric acid (P2O5)

Super phosphate, double
0.450
Phosphoric acid (P2O5)

Di calcium phosphate
0.350
Phosphoric acid (P2O5)

Bone-meal, raw
0.200
Phosphoric acid (P2O5)

Muriate of potash
0.600
Potash (K2O)

Sulphate of potash
0.500
Potash (K2O)





SL     Sandy Loam
SCL   Sandy Clay Loam
CL     Clay
  

S.No
Type
Light Soils - SL, SCL
Heavy Soils - CL

1
Acidic
0 – 5.9
0 – 5.0

2
Neutral
6 – 7.5
6 – 7.5

3
Weekly Alkaline
7.6 – 8.0
7.6 – 8.0

4
Moderately Alkaline
8.1 - 8.5
8.1 – 9.0

5
Highly Alkaline
8.5 and above
9.1 and above




S.No.
Nutrient
Low
Medium
High

1
Organic carbon (as a measure of available nitrogen) OR
Below 0.5%
0.5-0.75 %
Above 0.75%

2
Available Nitrogen (N) Natrajani
Below 280kg/ha
280-560kg/ha
Above 560kg/ha

3
Available Phosphorus (P) Bhaswaram – P2O5
Below 8kg/acre
8kg-20kg/acre
Above 20kg/acre

4
Available Potassium (K)
Potash – K2O
Below 60kg/acre
61kg – 120kg/acre
Above 120kg/acre



EC millimhos/Cms

S.No SL
SCL
Cl
  

1
0 – 1.0
0 – 1.5
0 – 2.0
Normal

2
1.1 – 2.0
1.6 – 3.0
2.1 – 4.0
Critical for Germination

3
2.1 – 3.0
3.1 – 4.5
4.1 – 6.0
Critical for growth

4
Above 3.0
Above 4.6
Above 6.0
Injurious to most crops


  
Severe deficiencies of individual essential elements produce a set of characteristic effects in the external appearance of leaves, stems, roots, blossoms and fruits. Visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency include stunted growth, chlorosis, mottling of leaves, abnormal curling of leaves, leaf discolouration, necrosis, premature senescence of leaves and blossoms. The following is an account of visual symptoms of deficiency of individual essential elements.


     When plants are deficient in nitrogen they become stunted and yellow in appearance.  This yellowing usually appears first on the lower leaves, the upper leaves remaining green.  The matur4e parts of the plant are first affected because nitrogen is translocated from the older to the younger actively growing regions.  Flowering is reduced.

      Deficiency symptoms of sulphur resemble those of nitrogen deficiencies.  However, unlike nitrogen, sulphur does not appear to be easily translocated.  The leaves are light green to yellow, appearing first along the veins of the young leaves.  The stems are slender.

       Particularly in cereals, the shortage of phosphorus will cause marked reduction in plant growth.  Young plants are stunted under severe deficiency of phosphorus.  Dark green or blue-green foliage is one of the first symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in many species.  Often, anthocyanins develop along the veins.  Fruits ripen slowly.

       The deficiency symptoms usually appear first on the lower leaves of annual plants and progress towards the top.  The leaves are dark blue-green to pale green with marginal chlorosis and under necrosis appearing first on old leaves.  Growth is subnormal and under severe conditions, terminal and lateral buds may die.  Potassium deficiency is associated with a decrease in resistance to pests and diseases.


        Magnesium deficiency symptoms first appear on the lower leaves and in many species of plants it results in interveinal chlorosis of the leaf in which only the veins remain green.  Severely affected leaves may wilt and shed or abscise without the wilting stage.  Brittleness of the leaves is common and necrosis often occurs.


        The deficiency of calcium stops the development of terminal bud; plant growth ceases in the absence of adequate supply of calcium.  Leaves are chlorotic, rolled and curled.  Plants fail to develop due to failure of terminal buds.  Roots are poorly developed and they are prone to infection by bacteria and fungi.  In corn, deficiency of calcium prevents the emergence and unfolding of the new leaves.


          A deficiency of iron appears on the young leaves of plants.  It is most frequently seen in crops growing on calcarious or alkaline soils.  Many crops exhibiting deficiency of this element are blue berries, sorghum, soyabeans, straw berries, vegetable crops and ornamentals.  The young leaves develop an interveinal chlorosis which progresses rapidly over the entire leaf.  In severe cases the leaves turn completely white.  Interveinal chlorosis appearing first on young leaves is the most striking symptoms of iron deficiency.  All aerial parts become chlorotic and often necrotic.  The leaves may be completely bleached, the margins and the tips are scorched.


         The leaves often show an interveinal chlorosis, with veins green and leaf web tissue yellow or white, appearing first on young leaves.  This mottled chlorosis may spread to the old leaves.  The stems are yellowish green which are often hard and woody.  Carotenes are reduced.  Plans are badly stunted in severe cases of deficiency.


          Deficiency of zinc was observed in corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, vegetables, legumes, and citrus.  Zinc deficiency leads to “little leaf” and ‘rosette’ in fruit trees.  Leaves are chlorotic and necrotic, sometimes with premature shedding of leaves.  Flowering and fruiting are much reduced under conditions of severe zinc deficiency.


          Copper deficiency was retorted on crops growing on peat and muck soils.  Wilting of terminal shoots takes place, frequently by death.  The leaf colour is often faded due to the reduction of carotene and other pigments.  Flowering and fruiting are curtailed.  Copper deficiency causes iron accumulation in the nodes of corn plants.

          Interveinal chlorosis and mottled appearance are the major symptoms with molybdenum deficiency.  Leaf blades become necrotic and disintegrate, leaving only a much reduced strip along the midrib resulting in the symptom known as ‘whiptail’.


          Deficiency of Boron is reported in citrus fruit.  Terminal leaves are necrotic and shed prematurely.  Tissues of plants with this deficiency appear hard, dry and brittle.  Roots are short and stubby.  Plants are dwarfed and stunted.  Flowering and seed production are severally affected, or lacking.  In citrus, the peel is uneven in thickness, the fruit is lumpy, and gummy deposits can be seen on the fruit.


           In the heat of the day, the tips of the young leaves wilt and dangle down, Wilting is followed by chlorosis, bronzing and necrosis.  Under severe conditions of deficiency, plants are spindly and stuned.

Last Updated: 2010-11-19 15:29:24  
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