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Dr. M.A. Lateef Khan M.V.Sc


As soon as the calf starts breathing, observe as to whether the navel cord is still attached. It is to be tied and cut off and disinfected. Feed the colostrum within 15 minutes of calving.

Weaning: If weaning is practiced 4 days after calving, further ration has to be fed as per the schedule.

Identification: The best method of permanent identification is by tattooing. Metal ear tags or button with letters and numbers, neck strap or neck-chain with a number plate make an easy method of identification.

Dehorning or disbudding: using hot iron, caustic sticks and electrical dehorning cone carries it out.


In small breeds, heifers are first bred at approximately 15 months of age while of the larger breeds are first bred at about 18 months. After the heifers have been bred and conception has taken place, they require somewhat better feeding, particularly in the last 2 months of pregnancy. They should be vaccinated against all the infectious and contagious diseases. Control of internal and external parasites should be continued


Feeding management: Tropical climate affects the quality and quantity of forage and these has to be taken care of, while managing cows for economic returns. Roughage's especially greens usually fed 4 to 5 times a day. Concentrates ate fed usually at the time of milking. The required concentrate mixture should be fed separately. The concentrate mixture should contain mineral and vitamin supplements.

Breeding management: Dairy cows usually come into heat some 30 to 40 days after calving. It is advisable to breed them in the second heat.

Dry period: The optimum dry period is between 60 to 100 days depending up on the production
and general health of the cow.

Care of the expectant mothers: The early stage and later one- third of the gestation period are very critical in the life of a female animal. In the stages of pregnancy, disturbances can cause abortion. During the later one-third of pregnancy, demands are made on the mother from the rapidly growing foetus and oncoming lactation.

Parturition care: Knowledge of signs of approaching parturition is beneficial to the farmer to plan his operation and put the animal in the calving pen . Though most of ghe4 cows do not need any help during parturation, it is safer to keep a watch over the cow before the commencement of labour pain. Watch the expulsion of placenta. Wash the udder and hind quarters with lukewarm water containing an antiseptic and dry with a clean clothe. The colostrums should be given to calf within 15 to 30 minutes of calving.

Milking: Hand milking is the most common practice. Usually milking is done twice daily, with an
interval of 12 hours.

Housing: Proper housing which is conducive to good health, comfort and protection from inclement weather , would enable the animals to utilise their genetic ability and feed for optimum production . The site selected should be dry, elevated and well drained with good water supply and provide enough space for future expansion. The type and number of sheds required will depend upon the managerial practices.


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