Aflatoxicosis in Quails - its effect and recent developments in toxicity reduction and control
P.K. Sahon, and S.V.R.Rao
The harmful effects of aflatoxinare well documented in chicken by many authors (Smith andHamilton, I970; Smithetal., 1971). Unlike chicken, the quails are resistanttocertain tolerable low doses of aflatoxin (Changeetal. 1979; MarksandWyatt, 1980). The LD50 dose in quail may vary from 1.65 mg/kg to 19.5 mg/Kg(Changand Hamilton. 1982; Marks and Wyatt, 1980). Four to six week old quails possess considerable resistance to aflatoxins (Gumbmannetal., 1970).
Effects on quail production:
a) Reduces feed conversion, production of shell less eggs at 6ppm level -Sawhneyetal., 1973
b) Reduces egg production, egg weight, hatchability, albumen & yolk weight, shell thickness at 2ppm -Sawhneyetal-, 1973
c) Reduction of body weight, feed consumption and percent tibiaash and increases mortality" Wilsonetal. 1978
d) reduces feed consumption, hatchability of egg at 0-3 ppm level for 100 days reduces fertility of eggs at0.75ppm ' -Johnetal., 1990
e) Increases susceptibility to various diseases by suppressing the immune system
f) Reduces total serum protein level but increases SGOT & SGPT enzymes with no change in egg weight, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, blood glucose & uric acidatO.75 ppm level -Johnetal. 1990
g) Decrease in serum protein & hemoglobin concentration above 0.5 ppm level, reduction indry alters, protein, calcium. Phosphorus retention above 0.3 ppm level. - John et al., 1989
h) Reduction of serum protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, ALP and enhance blood-glucose without change in Hemoglobin & SGOT concentration at >2ppm level. -Pandaetal., 1987
i) Reduction of serum proteins and carotenoids (most sensitive indicators of aflatoxicosis even at 1.25 ppm level), no significant change in serum lipids, liver lipids, hemoglobin, serum uric acid level even at20ppm. -Chang and Hamilton, 1982
j) Emerged liver and pancreas-most sensitive indicators of aflatoxicosis even at! .25 ppm -increase in size of proventriculus and gizzard and reduced bursa of fabric us at>5 ppm ChangandHamilton, 1982
k) bile duct hyperplasia, necrobiotic changes in various organs, mostly in liver, kidney, bursa.
1) Ultra structurally, hepatocytes show deletion of rough endo plasmicreticulum, detachment of ribo-somes from membrane; devoid of part ides in nuclear membrane; swollen mitochondria with reduced cristae; swollen nucleus with in-egulat outline; l"s 1-caldisruptionofnuclear membrane; micro segregation of nucleoplasm; little glycogen with more microbodiesat > 6 ppm level. -SawhJieyetal., 1973
Reduction of toxicity:
Several reports describing various ways of detoxification like roasting, autoclaving,
Treatments with anti fungal agents, oxidizing agents, chemicals like DDT, phenobarbital, chlorine gas & Formaldehyde. Ammoniation of feed as well as addition of activated charcoal to feed is available. These methods seem to be not so fully effective to detoxify contaminated feed- These are also costly. However, further studies should be undertaken to modify the feed by addition of Live Yeast culture (like Sacharoiltycescerevisiae),anti-caking agent (like Sodium Calcium aluminosilicate), or high protein diet to neutralize the toxicity caused by aflatoxicosis as well as to test their comparative efficacy.
Attempts have been made on the following to reduce the aflatoxin effects in quail.
a) Dietary modification, viz. raising crude protein by 3% and supplementation of additional level (twice of NRC recommendation) off iboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid & choline protected laying quails from performance depressing effects of 0.75 ppm level of aflatoxin. (John etal., 1990).
b) At 20 to 200 ppb level, TyIan/Terramycin partially protected quail chicks but Fiox Aid (a product containing two antibiotics & eight vitamins. especially vitamin. D3) fully protected quails clucks, (Wilsonet.ai.,1978).
c) Antibiotic- vitamin mixture (containing Penicillin, Streptomycin Sulphate, Folic acid, choline mainly) protected quail chicks fed aflatoxin up to 1.2ppm level. (Willson etal., 1978).
To control the growth of the fungus, from thevery beginning of the growing crops, care should be taken- Utmost emphasis also should be given at pre, during & period of crops as well as duringstorage of crops and processed feeds. A detail reporton this aspect is covered by Naroliari and Kumarany (1987).
However, research should be warranted on thefollowing aspects to control the same.
a) Development of genetically resistant lines of quail to aflatoxicosis (Marks and Wyatt, 1979).
b) Development of genetically resistant crop varieties (like Maize, groundnut, etc. which constitute the major fraction of Quail ration) to aflatoxin producing molds.c) Other biological control and biodegradation methods