Development of a DNA based technique to differentiate chicken meat and blood samples from various food animal species and human forensic specimens

D. Chaudhuri*, D.D. Chaudhuri, S. Mishra **, K. Thangaraj*** and S.R. Sharma**
1. Regional Station, CSWRI, NTRS, Garsa, HP- 175 141
2. Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500 030,
3. Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad-7

A DNA based diagnostic method was developed for differentiating chicken meat samples from amongst the meat samples of various food animals, viz, sheep, goat, pig, buffalo, ducks, emu and turkey and a few human forensic specimens, so as to find out a full-proof mechanism to identify meat sample-contamination and blood level . Randomly applied polymporphic DNA analysis was applied to the DNA isolated from these meat samples, using 10 potential RAPD primers (decamers), which were good at detecting polymorphism in avian species alone. It was seen that only one of the random primers out of this lot was successfully able to detect the species level differences to identify the meat-sources, in this heterogeneous lot of samples. The average number of DNA fragments amplified by this primer ranged from 2 to 8 across the species and primarily fell in the size range of 250 Bp to 1Kb. The chicken and turkey sample gave the maximum number of scorable bands, while the human samples produced only a couple of bands. The experiment also attempted amplification of human specific alleles using the Amelogenin locus and the S484 STR loci, which are known to yield hyper-variable alleles for human identification, in forensic cases. As expected, these 2 STR loci gave rise to human specific amplicons with differentiation of sexes, but failed to raise any amplification from the DNA of other species, thus ruling out its use for the targeted purpose. However, the above RAPD assay could accurately differentiate the meat animal species individually from that of human samples. The species specific DNA fragments raised the scope for converting them to useful Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers for developing assays to prevent meat contamination in food animal species. The study confirmed the utility of RAPD assays to prevent meat and blood level contaminations from suspected and forensic cases.

Source : IPSACON-2005

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