A retrospect of broiler breeding research in India
Broiler production has been the fastest growing sub-sector of Indian agriculture. It increased from 4 million broilers in 1971 to 1600 million broilers in 2003. India today ranks 5 th in the world in broiler production only next to USA, China, Brazil and Mexico in that order. In early stages of broiler production all the inputs including genetically improved germ plasm had to imported from outside. Even though the import of grand parent stocks of broilers still continues policy of the government has favoured establishment of pure line broiler breeding programmes both in public and private sector. Not much information is available about the kind of breeding programme followed and magnitude of the project undertaken in the private sector, the commercial broilers developed as a result of pure line breeding programme undertaken in the private sector by Venketeswar hatcheries, Pune, Kasila Farm, Hederabad and others have given comparable performance to the best stocks of broilers available in the world market. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, (ICAR), the nodal public sector organization for the agriculture research in the country has taken up broiler breeding programme at its own institutes viz. CARI and PDP as well as at some of the agriculture universities in form of institutional projects, All India Coordinated project, adhoc projects etc. A brief account of the research undertaken in public sector for development of superior broiler genetic stocks and the results obtained there to will be discussed.
Diallel crossing for broiler production sanctioned by ICAR with centers at IVRI, Izatnagar and UAS, Bangalore was the 1 st project in the country in the field of broiler breeding research. The project was sanctioned in 1969 and was merged with AICRP on poultry breeding in 1971 when AICRP was sanctioned and was executed by ICAR with centers at IVRI, Izatnagar, UAS, Bangalore, OUAT, Bhubaneswar and Madras Veterinary College, Madras. Two more centers one at PKV, Akola and other at Govt. of Sikim and one sub-center at PAU Ludhiana were opened during 5 th plan period. Adohc center was upgraded to a full center subsequently. Some of these centers were phased out on the recommendations of review committee and in 8 th plan research in broiler is being carried out only at CARI, Izatnagar, UAS, Bangalore, PAU, Ludhiana and OUAT, Bhubaneswar. JNKV center which was previously a center of AICRP on poultry for eggs has been converted to a center of poultry for meat and working exclusively on dwarf broilers.
Besides these above projects ICAR also undertook a project on development of specialized sire and dam line for production of commercial broiler at HAU, Hissar and OUAT, Bhubaneswar. The results realized from all these experiments are summarized below.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Strains of Pure line White rock, White Cornish and New Hampshire available in the country constituted the experimental material for diallel crossing in broiler production as well as during the 1 st phase of AICRP on poultry breeding. Subsequently a few genetic stocks of White rock and Cornish and Red Cornish breed were imported from Israel and USA. Evaluation, selection and regeneration of each strain and evaluation of their performance in cross combinations were the main features for investigation. PDP was used as a testing center for the comparative evaluation of broiler crosses developed at different centers.
Synthetic stocks were developed at some of the centers like CARI, Ludhiana and OUAT utilizing the commercial germ plasm available in the country. Body weight to the marketing age was the principal trait of selection and received major emphasis in the breeding programme. Initially both males and females of each line were selected on the basis of individual 10-week body weight. The age at selection was subsequently reduced to 8/6 weeks based on the progress made and contemporary development in the industry. Now selection is being practiced on the basis of 5 th week body weight.
Variable pressure in the selection programme is also given to the body confirmation traits in male line and egg production in the female line. For improving fertility and hatchability, the male and female individuals selected earlier on the basis of other traits are tested for their fertility and hatchability prior to mating season and those with poor performance are rejected and not allowed to become the parents of next generation. 240 females and 40 males were selected in each line and mated random with restriction on full and half sib mating to reproduce the next generation. Now the number of individuals measured have been increased as a result more number of males and females are selected in each generation to reproduce the next generation. At present 70 males and 560 females are selected in each generation and 10,000 chicks are measured up to 5 weeks of age.
Besides selection, the genetic stocks developed in the project were crossed in all possible or in specific combinations at intermittent intervals in each center to study the performance of lines in cross combination. Crosses developed in the center were also tested at Random Sample centers and at the projects own testing center and those crosses with repeatable satisfactory performance were supplied to the farmers under field testing programme.
Data generated on crosses were subjected to diallel analysis to evaluate the genetic effects influencing the broiler traits measured in pure line and their crosses.
The salient findings arising from the studies are as follows.
Due to increase in number of birds for testing in each population under study Bhubaneswar and Bangalore centers are maintaining one population each and two population each at Ludhiana and CARI. (Table-1). Jabalpur center is working on dwarf broiler line.
The performance of these lines during 2003-04 for 5 th week body weight, FCR and viability to 5 weeks are presented in Table-1.Table-1
The performance of the crosses at RSBT has been presented in Table-2.Table-2
It is difficult to draw any conclusion since pure lines studied earlier are not available at present except Pb1 and Pb2. However, the general conclusions that can be drawn are as follows.
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|Source : IPSACON-2005|