Novel sources of energy and protein in changed global scenario of backyard poultry keeping*
Back yard Poultry does not require any feed. Khandekar et.al (1999-2000) reported that the birds are fed with choker or wheat dust, which is purchased from market at the rate of Rs. 4-5/ Kg and recommend for balanced feed during 1st month, community brooding and subsequently on backyard poultry farming on kitchen waste and field weeds. Gupta et.al (2004) reported after a survey of seven districts of Meghalaya on border villages of Bengla desh that most of the farmers offer locally produced serial gains and kitchen waste to their birds and allow for scavenging in day time.
There is need to make farmers aware various novel sources of energy and protein. They can exploit utility locally available sources to reduced cost of feed which constitute 60-70%
I. NOVEL ENERGY RICH SOURCES
i) Sorghum (Jowar or Milo) Asha Rajini et.al (1986)
ii) Finger millet
iii) Pearl millet
Maize 48% replaced by Narahari et.al (1981)
Rice polish (20% to 30%)
Roots and Tubers.
Gowdh et.al (1989) observed that boiled tapioca meal can replace maize completely.
II. NOVEL SOURCES OF ANIMAL PROTEIN
1) Earth worm:
1 Kg.of earth worm biomass could be produced daily in 25 m2 area which can be sufficient for 15 chicken as normal protein source.
(i) Calvert (1979) claims that dried fly pupae can substitute soyabean
meal in chick diet up to 4 weeks of age.
(ii) Several coprophagus insects can convert human extra and degrade
manure effectively into protein rich food useful for scavenging
(iii) Grass hoppers contains 58% protein merman cricket contain 76%
(iv) The utility of cockroaches, cater piller, termites and beetler were also
suited as sources of avoid protein in rural poultry.
v) Silkworm pupae (by product) silk industry contains 48% protein and
27% crude fat and high Vitamin content. However deoiled silkworm
pupae contains 80% of crude protein. It can replace 50 of fish meal in
chick mash and 100% in layer mash (Virk et.al 1980)
3. Animal wastes :
Supply a good amount of protein, phosphorous and other nutrients to poultry.
i) Sinha et.al (1977) and Sadagopan et.al (1979) recommended dried poultry manure upto 10% on chick mash
ii) Cow manure has marked beneficial effect on growth and feed conversion in
chicks probably due to unidentified growth factors.
4. Snail meal:
Snail meal contains 60% protein, 2% calcium,0-8% phosphorous 4% lysine at 1% methionine and ME content of 3400 K cal/Kg. Boiled snail can be safely included upto 15% replacing maize in poultry .(Creswell and Kompiang (1980)
Sharma et.al (2004)claimed that Indian Desi type birds under backyard poultry farming meal minimum inputs and mostly meat their nutritional requirements by feeding on fallen grains, kitchen leftovers insects ,worms, tender leaves and all the material available on scavenging. They also need supplementation of calcium in the form of shell grit/ stone grit /marble chips/lime @ 4.5 g./bird/day to prevent production of thin/shell less eggs.
Muralimanohar (2004) recommends to Preventive Health Central program for backyard poultry.
1) Preventive vaccination against R.D. with ‘F’ strain cocculer at 7 th day and with Lasota vaccine 3 rd week & R2B vaccination at 2 months (Wing, I/M)
2) Immuno modulations. Turmeric (Curcum a linga) :@ 1g. / 5 litre of water.
3) Prevention of bacterial diseases: water boiled and cooled or treated with bleaching powder @ 0.8 g./100 litres)
4) Prevention of ecto-parasites
(i) Gamaxine 5% dusted.
(ii) Seetha leave and seeds powdered and applied on birds.
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Calvert,C.C,(1979) Use of animal excreta for microbial and insert protein synthesis. J. Animal Science 48:178-191.
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|Source : IPSACON-2005|