Dairy Articles

For Project Reports & traning on Poultry, Dairy, EMU, Goat, Sheep, Milk Chiling
Plant, Agriculture Horticulture & Bulkdrugs/API/Chemicals.
Contact Mr. Raghu. Email: [email protected]

Novel sources of energy and protein in changed global scenario of backyard poultry keeping*

Central Poultry Development Organization (WR), Aarey Milk Colony, Mumbai – 400 065


Back yard Poultry does not require any feed. Khandekar et.al (1999-2000) reported that the birds are fed with choker or wheat dust, which is purchased from market at the rate of Rs. 4-5/ Kg and recommend for balanced feed during 1st month, community brooding and subsequently on backyard poultry farming on kitchen waste and field weeds. Gupta et.al (2004) reported after a survey of seven districts of Meghalaya on border villages of Bengla desh that most of the farmers offer locally produced serial gains and kitchen waste to their birds and allow for scavenging in day time.

There is need to make farmers aware various novel sources of energy and protein. They can exploit utility locally available sources to reduced cost of feed which constitute 60-70%

Least Cost Feed Formulation Software for Poultry, Dairy, EMU and any kind of Livestock

Please Contact :
Y.Srinivas - ☏ +91 9849039200
Email : [email protected] www.ecomixonline.com


  • Complete replacement of Maize possible by Millets and Millry products.

i) Sorghum (Jowar or Milo) Asha Rajini et.al (1986)

ii) Finger millet

iii) Pearl millet

Maize 48% replaced by Narahari et.al (1981)

Rice polish (20% to 30%)

Roots and Tubers.

Gowdh et.al (1989) observed that boiled tapioca meal can replace maize completely.

  • Fruits and vegetable and their by products as sources of energy and Vit.A: Reddy and Qudratullah, (1996) recommends that to use bananas and plantains, guava, orange, mango etc. as good some of energy and Vitamin A. Similarly common vegetables wastes like cabbage, tomato, carrot, cauliflower can be good source of energy and Vitamins for rural poultry.
  • Other Agro Industrial By-products as sources of energy.
  • Boiled and treated mango kernel meal can replace 25% of Maize (Reddy1975)
  • Molasses can be used 3-5% in layer diet.
  • Leaf meals has good sources of protein, carotine and trace minerals
  • Neem leaves upto 10% in layer feed (Sonaiya,1995)
  • Pea nut leaves up to 10% level ( Reddy et.al 1973)
  • Lucsin and Burrem meal, Subabul leaf meal are very commonly used upto 5%


1) Earth worm:

1 Kg.of earth worm biomass could be produced daily in 25 m2 area which can be sufficient for 15 chicken as normal protein source.

2) Insects:

(i) Calvert (1979) claims that dried fly pupae can substitute soyabean

meal in chick diet up to 4 weeks of age.

(ii) Several coprophagus insects can convert human extra and degrade

manure effectively into protein rich food useful for scavenging


(iii) Grass hoppers contains 58% protein merman cricket contain 76%


(iv) The utility of cockroaches, cater piller, termites and beetler were also

suited as sources of avoid protein in rural poultry.

v) Silkworm pupae (by product) silk industry contains 48% protein and

27% crude fat and high Vitamin content. However deoiled silkworm

pupae contains 80% of crude protein. It can replace 50 of fish meal in

chick mash and 100% in layer mash (Virk et.al 1980)

3. Animal wastes :

Supply a good amount of protein, phosphorous and other nutrients to poultry.

i) Sinha et.al (1977) and Sadagopan et.al (1979) recommended dried poultry manure upto 10% on chick mash

ii) Cow manure has marked beneficial effect on growth and feed conversion in

chicks probably due to unidentified growth factors.

4. Snail meal:

Snail meal contains 60% protein, 2% calcium,0-8% phosphorous 4% lysine at 1% methionine and ME content of 3400 K cal/Kg. Boiled snail can be safely included upto 15% replacing maize in poultry .(Creswell and Kompiang (1980)

Sharma et.al (2004)claimed that Indian Desi type birds under backyard poultry farming meal minimum inputs and mostly meat their nutritional requirements by feeding on fallen grains, kitchen leftovers insects ,worms, tender leaves and all the material available on scavenging. They also need supplementation of calcium in the form of shell grit/ stone grit /marble chips/lime @ 4.5 g./bird/day to prevent production of thin/shell less eggs.


Muralimanohar (2004) recommends to Preventive Health Central program for backyard poultry.

1) Preventive vaccination against R.D. with ‘F’ strain cocculer at 7 th day and with Lasota vaccine 3 rd week & R2B vaccination at 2 months (Wing, I/M)

2) Immuno modulations. Turmeric (Curcum a linga) :@ 1g. / 5 litre of water.

3) Prevention of bacterial diseases: water boiled and cooled or treated with bleaching powder @ 0.8 g./100 litres)

4) Prevention of ecto-parasites

(i) Gamaxine 5% dusted.

(ii) Seetha leave and seeds powdered and applied on birds.


Asha Rajini, R., Rukmangadhan, S., Ravinderan, Murudananadhan, B and Vendhanayagam, K,(1986). Replacing maize with other grains in broiler diets. Indian J.Poult. Sci 21:343-344.

Calvert,C.C,(1979) Use of animal excreta for microbial and insert protein synthesis. J. Animal Science 48:178-191.

Cresswell, D.C, and Kompiang, P(1980) Studies on snail meal as a protein source for chicken.in.chemical composition, metabolizable energy and feeding value for broilers. Metabolism and Nutrition 60:1854-1860. Census of India (1991) Find population Total paper-2,1992 vol.1.

Gowdh,C.V., Reddy,C.V., and Reddy, V.R (1989) utilization of tapioca (Manihot essculenta Crantz for egg production. Indian J.Poult.Sci. 24: 287-291.

Muralimanohar, B.(2004) Diseases affecting village poultry and their prevention. 3 rd National Seminar on Rural Poultry for Advance Environment Services and Compendium 11: 39-45.

Khandekar,N. Khandekar, P and Sharma R.P (1998) Role of women in conversation of poultry genetic resources in India . Proceeding of the fourth Global Conference on Conservation of domestic animal genetic resources. Kathmandu , Nepal 17-21 August, P.P: 254-256

Narhari, D., Venugopal,K., Gabriel R.P., Kothandaraman, P and Venkataramanujam, V.(1981). Studies on Rice Polish as a major source of energy in broiler diets. Cherion 10:3.

Reddy, C.V(1975) Utilization of big-products in poultry feeding in India . World review of Animal production. 11:66-72.

Reddy, K.S., Mathur, C.R., Siddiqui, SM., and Reddy, C,V(1973) Feeding Value of dehydrated groundnut plant meal in Layer rations. Indian J.Anim. Sci.43:1017-1020.

Reddy, C.V and Qudratullah, (1996). Strategic feeding supplementation through locally available resources. XXth Worlds Poultry Congress New Delhi , India . Vol.I pp.3-16.

Sadagopan, V.R., Reddy, V.R and Panda, B.(1979) Utilization of Poultry manure I chicks. Indian Vet. J.56: 601-603.

Sinha , U.K. , Rao,P.V., Sadgopan, V.V. and Panda.B (1977). Utilization and metabolizable energy content of dried Poultry manure in chick starter rations. Indian J.Poult.Sci. 12:13-17.

Sharma.R.P., Shyam Sunder, G., Rama Rao, S.V and Raju, M.V.L. (2004). Performance of van raja birds under diversified climatic regions in India . 3 rd National Semninar on Rural Poultry for Adverse Environment. Souvenir and compendium pp. 20-26.

Sonaiya . E.B. (1995) Feeding resources for small holder poultry in Nigeria , World Animal Review, 1: 25-33.

Virk, R.S., Lodhi, G.N and Ichhponami, J.S. (1980) Deoiled silkworm pupae meal as a

substitute for fish meal in WL Laying ration. Indian. J.Pault. Sci.15: 149/154.

Source : IPSACON-2005