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Indian poultry production vis-a-vis South Asia and World

B.K.MALLIK
Central Poultry Development Organization (WR)
Aarey Milk Colony, Mumbai – 400 065

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India and other South Asian nations mainly depends on agriculture. Due to explosion of human population(table no.1),stagnation of pulse production, decreased soil fertility and change in climate poultry farming is recognized as one of the best in agriculture to provide protein source diet in South Asian countries.

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Growth of human population:

As per Executive Guide(2004/05) human population in Asia is highest (3679.7million) as compared to Africa(795.7million), America(N-488.8&S-347.3million), Europe(728.0million) and Oceania(31.0million).South Asia shares 1342.1million. It is about 36.47% of Asia and 22.11% of the world population. India occupies first position with a record of 1016.9million in South Asia, followed by Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Srilanka, Bhutan and Maldives(Table-1).

Table No.1 Human Population Growth(in Million ):

Country 1995 2000 2005* 2010**
India 927.1 1016.9 1096.9 1173.8
Pakistan 123.7 142.7 161.2 181.8
Bangladesh 123.6 138.0 152.6 167.2
Nepal 20.4 23.5 26.3 29.2
Srilanka 18.0 18.6 19.4 20.1
Maldives 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4
Bhutan 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
Total 1214.9 1342.1 1459.1 1575.2
Asia 3423.3 3679.7 3917.5 4149.0
% of Asia 35.29 36.47 37.25 37.97
World 5661.9 6070.6 6453.6 6830.3
%fo world 21.46 22.11 22.61 23.06

*=estimated, **=forecast, Source: FAO & World Bank Atlas.

Among South Asian countries Bhutan has the highest annual growth rate of 3.33% followed by Pakistan(3.10%),Nepal(3.04%), Bangladesh(2.3%), India(1.9%) and Srilanka(0.7%) except Maldives where it is fixed(table-1).It is estimated that, growth rate will reduce in future by 2005 in South Asian countries except Srilanka and Maldives. Similarly the forecasts by 2010 are in the declined condition with exclusion of Maldives. The reduction is more in Nepal followed by Pakistan, Bhutan, India, Bangladesh, and Srilanka. It is expected that, order of reduction will be Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Srilanka and Pakistan by the end of the 2010.

Table No-2,Gross National Income(GNI in US$/person/year)

Countries

1998

1999

2000

2001

India

440

440

450

460

Pakistan

470

470

440

420

B,desh

350

370

370

360

Nepal

210

220

240

250

Srilanka

810

820

850

880

Maldives

1130

1200

1960

2000

Bhutan

470

510

590

640

Source:FAO and World Bank Atlas.

Gross national income from 1998-2001 are in increased orders for the countries of India, Nepal, Srilanka, Maldives and Bhutan. In case of Pakistan and Bangladesh there is a down fall of 4.5% and 2.7%respectively.Change in gross national income from 1998-2001, Maldives occupies forefront position(76.99%) followed by Bhutan(36.17), Nepal(19.05), Srilanka(8.64), India(4.55), Bangladesh(2.86) where as Pakistan is on the negative side(-10.64).Among 174 countries in the world ,the human development index which takes in to accounts education, income and health deprivation ,most of South Asian countries fall (between 81-130)under low human development index category. But it should be noted that the human development index is fast improving for most of the south Asian countries compared to other developing countries since 1995.

Poultry population and chicken meat out put:

South Asia has 1/6 th of the worlds livestock unit including poultry with an annual growth rate of 1.7% which is higher than the worlds annual growth rate of 1.6%.On an average both the human and livestock unit are increasing at the rate of 2.1% per year resulting in highest density per hectare in the world, where as a smallest area of arable land which is decreasing at 0.6% per year(Reddy,2001).It is estimated that about 4 million in India ,2million in Pakistan ,one million in Bangladesh, and about 50000 people in Nepal and Srilanka depends on various poultry activities(Reddy,2001).South Asia has recorded an annual growth rate of 6.2% and 27.1%in egg and poultry meat production, which is higher than world average and also other agriculture & livestock production indices, thus placing a greater demand on raw feed resources.

Table -3Chicken slaughter* and chicken meat out put:

Country

Chicken slaughter(million)

Change2003/ 1993(%)

Chicken meat out put(000 tone)

1993

1998

2001

2003

03/93

2001

2003

India

560

710

662

1600

186.71

595

1440

Pakistan

183

276

292

346

89.07

333

370

Nepal

11

14

16

16

45.45

13

15

B Desh

109

140

141

146

33.94

99

102

Srilanka

32

49

54

60

87.50

65

78

Maldives

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bhutan

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

895

1189

1165

2168

142.23

1105

2005

Asia

9722

12486

15516

16562

70.36

18945

20501

% of Asia

9.21

9.26

7.51

13.09

42.13

5.83

9.78

World

30733

38110

43694

45895

49.33

60300

65000

% of World

2.91

3.12

2.67

4.72

62.20

1.83

3.08

*=some instance culled layers involved,-=data not available ,Source: FAO(Executive Guide-2004/05)

Chicken slaughters came close to 45895 million in 2003 while chicken meat production reached a record of 65million tons in world. These figures includes culled layers. Asia, the largest regional producer increased its production of the world total from 31.63% to almost 36.09% between 1993 and 2003.At the same time, India accounted largest share in South Asia changed a very big from 62.56%to73.80%.The most significant change of the chicken meat ranking table is that India has moved to fifth place, displacing Thailand which has slipped to seventh in the world.It is reveled that India occupies first position in chicken slaughtering ,chicken meat out put in South Asia followed by Pakistan ,Bangladesh, Srilanka and Nepal. India shares 9.66% of Asia and3.48% of world in chicken slaughter. India sharing of chicken meat out put for Asia and world figures are 7.02%and 2.22% respectively. Similarly chicken meat out put change over the year of 2003/2001 for India (142.02%) having very lower constant figure about 8% for both in Asia and world. Other South Asian countries are in the order of Srilanka, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh for chicken meat out put. Chicken slaughter change over 2003/1993 for India(185.71%) which is highest as compared to Asia and world are about 70.36% and 62.20% respectively.

Table-4 Chicken meat consumptionKg/person/year(supply):

Country

1993

1998

1999

2001

India

0.6

0.7

0.6

1.2

Pakistan

2.3

2.2

2.3

2.3

Nepal

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

Bangla Desh

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

Srilanka

2.2

3.2

3.1

4.4

Maldives

3.5

4.1

3.4

4.5

Bhutan

-

-

-

-

Total

1.65

1.92

1.80

2.3

Asia

4.5

6.0

6.3

6.7

World

8.6

10.3

10.5

11.2

Source:FAO(Executive Guide-2004/05)

During last decades the percentage share of poultry meat consumption by people has gone up from about 3 to 15% in various south Asian nations. Over the past year, the demand of poultry meat suffered a set back in several countries in particular, China , India and Philippines , as consumer reacted against the news of outbreak of Avian influenza. However uptake/person picture increased to 6.7kg in Asia and 8kg in other developing countries whereas it is 27kg for developed countries. Among the south Asian nations Pakistan & Bangladesh have recorded a steady growth rate in meat consumption with slight increase in case of Nepal from 1993 to 2001.. There is a significant development in Srilanka with slight fluctuation in Maldives . There was a two fold development in India by the end of 2001.

Table No-5,South Asian chicken meat production ranking in the world:

Name of the countries

Position

India

5 th

Pakistan

34 th

B ,desh

56 th

Srilanka

70 th

Nepal

112th

Bhutan

Not in the list

Source:USDA’s FAS

Among South Asian countries, India leads in poultry meat production, ranking 5 th in world, but its position is 6 th in broiler production only(ready to cook equivalent).Poultry meat production of India beat the record of 0.6million tons in 2001,1.4million tons in 2002 and with a figure of 1.44million tons in 2003,where as the forecast by the end of 2004 will be 1.8million tons.

 Layer number and hen egg production:

Country

Hen(million)

Eggs(000 tones)

Change1993/ 2003(%)

 

2001

2003

1993

1998

2001

2003

03/93

India

160.0

185.0

1329.0

1623.0

1905.8

2200.0

66

Pakistan

63.0

64.0

243.0

269.6

339.8

353.7

46

Nepal

6.0

7.0

17.8

22.1

24.6

26.2

47

B.Desh

76.0

76.0

73.4

130.1

133.0

134.5

83

Srilanka

4.3

4.3

48.6

49.7

52.3

54.0

11

Maldives

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bhutan

0.2

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.2

-50

Total

309.5

336.4

1712.2

2094.8

2455.9

2768.6

62

Asia

3091

3254

18146

26818

29884

33007

82

% of Asia

10.01

10.34

9.44

7.81

8.22

8.39

-11

World

5172

5383

38500

48100

52400

55800

45

% of world

5.98

6.25

4.45

4.36

4.69

4.96

11

Table No-6 Layer number and hen egg production* in South Asia:

*=include hatching eggs,-=data not available, Source: FAO(Executive Guide-2004/05)

Layer bird number world wide grew by 1.3% during last year to reach a new record high of 5383 million. Region wise showing fastest rate of growth in South America(world)and India and Nepal( South Asia ). Last 3 years world egg production rise by 2.2% to hit a new record of 55.8 million tons(including 6% hatching eggs).More than 60% of all layers are found in Asia with a figure of 3254million birds with a out put of 33million ton of eggs. India has improved on her position and is now fourth behind China, USA and Japan and looks certain to climb in to third place in just a couple of years. India achieved the figures of 185million birds(55% of South Asia) and 2.2million tons eggs by the end of 2003.Since 1993 egg out put climbed by 65.5%.The world wide rate of increase may change from between now to 2015 is 3 to 2percent.At that time global out put will be 66 million tons. With improved laying performance, the number of eggs produced has shown a more rapid increase than that of layer numbers in Asia and world. It may be due to introduction of colored plumage, dwarf genes, and exploitation of indigenous germplasm(desi).During the period of 2001-2003,in India, layer number and egg production increased at equal rates about 15.5%.There is slight increase in layer number for the countries of India, Pakistan and Nepal, but there was no change in case of Bangladesh and Srilanka with a 50% of decline in Bhutan. The change in chicken egg out put (1993/2003) Bangladesh is 83%,follwed by India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka except Bhutan where it is -50%

Table-7 Egg consumption kg/person/year(supply)

Country

1993

1998

1999

2001

India

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

Pakistan

1.8

1.7

2.0

2.0

Nepal

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.0

B.Desh

0.7

1.0

1.1

1.0

Srilanka

2.5

2.3

2.4

2.4

Maldives

4.0

6.9

1.1

7.8

Bhutan

-

-

-

-

Total

1.87

2.38

1.52

2.62

Asia

5.7

7.7

7.9

8.3

World

6.7

7.8

8.0

8.2

Source:Executive Guide-2004/05

When we will see the Figure of Chicken egg consumption in kg per person in a year, Maldives occupies first position in South Asia that can touch the Asia and world figure in near future. Though there is significant development for the Maldives than last year but there was drastic down fall during the year of 1999.Growth rate is almost same since the 1993 in case of India , Nepal and Srilanka.

Table No-8SouthAsian egg production ranking in the world:

Name of the countries

Position

India

4 th

Pakistan

26 th

B,desh

42th

Srilanka

67 th

Nepal

92th

Bhutan

181th

Source: Executive Guide-2004/05

The FAO forecast that world all eggs production (hen, duck and goose) will that of 72million tons by 2015 compared with today level of around 56 million .Hen egg out put will rise to around 68 million tons. As in the recent past most the increase will originate in the developing countries. Production in developing countries is only expected to go up from 18 million tons (2000) to 20 million tons by 2015 contrasting with a gain of 15 million tons in developing sector where out put is expected to jump from 37 million tons to at least 52 million ton. The bulk of increase will occur in just 4 countries of China+5.0 million tons, Mexico+2.3 million tons ,India+0.8 million tons and Brazil+0.5 million tons anticipating marked growth in Pakistan and Bangladesh. India supplied only 2% of the 1088 tons of dried whole yolk in 1990,in 2000 this country shipped 957 to 2153 tons from this region.

 Trades: Next to Europe, Asia dominate world trades in shell eggs, liquid eggs and dried products. The shell egg shipment from Asian countries increased from 170000 tons to 261000 tons between 1990 and 2002,where it is accounted more than a quarter of the world total. For the liquid egg exports Asia shares 17% of the exports in the world. In Asia,among South Asian countries, India is a major exporter shipped 12500 tons followed by Thailand(3200T) and China(2000T).

 Poultry Production system in south Asia:

The south Asian poultry production system mainly divided in to two types. It is based on geographical location, size of the farm and adoption of technology.

 1. Intensive or Industrial farming: It is sub divided in to large scale and medium scale .

Under large scale system capacity of birds is about 50,000 to 4.0 lacs. It is mostly in urban and semi urban areas in India and very few in Pakistan. This type of farming is dominated by rich people who adopted the fully or semi automatic management with high inputs. Under medium scale system capacity of birds is about 10,000-50,000 located in and around urban areas in almost all South Asian countries. This type of farming is under middle class people without any automation and investment of big money.

Table-9 Difference between Traditional & Industrial Poultry:

Sl no.

Issues

Traditional system

Industrial system

1

Equity-No of families from lower economic status

Several

Very few

2

Gender-No of women involved

Several

Very few

3

Sustainability

Good

For large farm only

4

Risk

Low risk

High risk

5

Environment

Friendly positive

Negative

6

Biodiversity

Promoted

Suppressed

7

External inputs

Very little

Very high

8

Use of indigenous knowledge

Fully used

Very little

2. Extensive or traditional farming :It is sub divided into three types as small scale, backyard and free range farming. This type is extensively practiced in rural areas of South Asian countries. All these three sub systems grouped together termed as rural poultry farming. All owners are poor people who adopt moderate to low inputs .The birds under the low input system is termed as low input technology birds. Specifically backyard/free range poultry maintained under most traditional methods with a view to produce some eggs and poultry meat for their own home consumption or even to make a little remuneration if possible through surplus production. On the other hand some are selling these eggs and meat to replenish their day-to-days bread and butter.

Table-10Three Systems of Traditional Poultry Farming:

Items

Small scale farming

Backyard farming

Free range farming

Capacity

5,000-10,000

500-5,000

10-15

Type of bird

Hybrid

Hybrid/cross bred

Native/cross bred

In puts

Moderate input

Low input

No input

Owner

Poor farmers

Poor farmers

Poor farmers

Management

Required

Required

Not at all

Housing

Required

Required

Only night shelter

Ecologically

No sound

Less sound

Totally sound

Diversification of South Asian poultry:

Vertical diversification(within the species):Change of white broiler to colored dual purpose bird by breeding and cross breeding of exotic and indigenous germplasm(merging layer and broiler) having medium body weight, disease resistant power, minimum managements, low housing cost, reducing feed cost by utilizing locally available unconventional feed ingredients.

Horizontal diversification:

Change over to other species of Duck, Quail, Turkey, Guinea fowl, Emu and Ostrich.

Duck: World duck production continues to make steady growth and 2004 break the barrier of 1993 to doubling the number killed of 2300 million in 2003. However, Asia remains dominant accounting 89% of all birds and 82% of duck meat out put.China contributing 1635 million birdsin 2003 (81% to the regions total).The next largest producer in Asia was India with some123millionbirds(160000T)followed by Viet Nam with 69million(83000T)and Thailand with 42million(63000T).It has been established a good shape & size in some of Eastern and North Eastern states of India, southern states like of Kerala Andhra Pradesh and Trivendrum(coastal belts only).Except India there is little instance of duck Farming in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Maldives.

Goose: Goose slaughtering in Asia coming close to 500million in 1993 the global total hit a new high of 533 million. The Asia accounting 93% of the world total out put of 2.13 million tons. In south Asia it lacking.

Quails: Quail Statistics is limiting in South Asian countries except India. Its Growth in progress in the states of Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarha,Karnatak,Uttar Pradesh etc.

Turkey: Global turkey slaughter and meat out put are in opposite direction. USDA forecast further reduction in future. It is not yet popularized in India, only limited in the research stations and agriculture universities of the South Asian countries.

Emu& Otsrich:Not having any existence in the Asian countries where as in India it is under gestation period in the private sector only .It’s future is unpredicted, but need promotion for development.


 

Source : IPSACON-2005